Nguyen-Van-Hung,   Tran-Van-Tuan, Pyseth Meas, Caesar Joventino M. Tado, Myo Aung Kyaw, & Martin Gummert


Plant Production Science
ISSN: 1343-943X (Print) 1349-1008 (Online) Journal homepage:



This research developed a computer-based simulation model applicable for conventional and reversible airflow flatbed dryers, which can be used to predict the optimized time for mixing paddy (for the conventional flatbed dryer) and reversing the drying air (for the reversible air flatbed dryer). The developed software has the ability of simulating the paddy moisture content and temperature based on the input parameters of ambient (temperature and relative humidity) and drying air (temperature and airflow rate), dimensions of the dryers, and input grain properties and weight.   

This paper reviews the utilization of rice straw in the world, including the production and properties of straw, different equipment for gathering and processing of straw, as related to costs in handling operations, various methods of using straw--from simple ways such as cattle feeding or organic fertilizers, to more sophisticated ways in electrical power generation or paper industry.  Straw utilization in Vietnam is presented in parallel, with emphasis on identifying problems to be studied and verified versus other results in the world.


Key-words: Rice straw; straw equipment; straw baler; straw utilization; Vietnam

In the September of 2018, under the BMZ-funded IRRI Rice straw management project, the IRRI-Vietnam Office (IVO) coordinating with Tien Giang University, and HCMC Nong Lam University co-hosted a Field-demonstration of rice straw-based compost turner and a Write-shop on outlining a book entitled "Sustainable rice straw management", in Tan Phuoc district and My Tho city of Tien Giang province, respectively.

The research paper entitled, "IMPLEMENTATION OF A SOLAR-ASSISTED DRYER FOR FISH", was submitted, reviewed, and accepted for publication and presentation at the International Conference on Agricultural and Bio-system Engineering (ICABE) 2017, Nong Lam University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

This is the NEWS: "Agricultural industrialization and rural construction, No. 03-2018" (in Vietnamese). 


Recently, the Daknong Agricultural Extension Center of the Daknong Department of Agriculture and Rural Development invited Center for Agricultural Energy and Machinery of the Nong Lam University - Ho Chi Minh City (NLU), to co-host the training courses at the districts and town of the Daknong province in this early September. The training courses are belonging to the national agricultural extension program in the year of 2018.


In the last August of 2018, The CENTER FOR AGRICULTURAL ENERGY AND MACHINERY of the HCMC Nong Lam University fabricated, installed, and transferred one pepper dryer (SRA-2, drying air-reversal type, with 2-ton/batch capacity) to Cambodia. The dryer was set up for a pepper farmer in Kampot province, Cambodia.

Published article:

"Developing densified products to reduce transportation costs and to improve the quality of rice straw feedstocks for cattle feed"

 Nguyen Van Hieu1*; Nguyen Thanh Nghi2, Le Quang Vinh2; Le Minh Anh3 ;
Nguyen Van Hung4, Martin Gummert4


 Tien Giang University, #119, Ap Bac St., Ward 5, My Tho City, Tien Giang Province, Vietnam;

 Nong Lam University,  6th Quarter, Linh Trung Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam;

 Binh Minh Group, #784, National Highway 50, Cho Gao District, Tien Giang Province; &

 International Rice Research Institute, DAPO Box 7777, Metro Manila, Philippines.


Journal of Vietnamese Environment, Vol. 10, No. 1 (2018), pp. 11-15, Technical University of Dresden, Germany.


An applied research regarding to management and use of rice straw more effectively was done by a research team of the NLU Center for Agricultural Energy and Machinery coordinating with other institutions such as Tien Giang University, Binh Minh Group, and the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). This research belongs to the BMZ-funded IRRI rice straw Management Project that is being conducted  consurrently in Vietnam and other Southest Asia countries. Results of the research were summarized into a scientific paper, was sent for reviewing and then accepted for publishing on the Scientific Journal of the Technical University of Dresden (Germany).

The study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the effectiveness of drying the coffee bean as applying two-stage drying method that was combining a fluidized-bed dryer with a recirculating columnar dryer.

Recently, coordinating with Center for product-quality management of the Loc Troi Group, the NLU Center for Agricultural Energy and Machinery composed a document and taught at the training course on "Postharvest Mechanization in Rice Seed Production"The training course was being taken place in 3 days, at Dinh Thanh Agricultural Research Center, Dinh Thanh commune, Thoai Son district, An Giang province.


The training course on transplanter and sprayer was hosted by National Agricultural Extension Center in 2017 .

 Là một sự kiện nằm trong chuỗi các hoạt động hợp tác được triển khai trong năm 2017 giữa Viện Nghiên cứu Lúa Quốc tế (IRRI) và Trường Đại học Nông Lâm Tp.HCM, ngày 28/9/2017 vừa qua, IRRI, Công ty GrainPro (Israel), GISP (nhà phân phối các sản phẩm của GrainPro tại Việt Nam), phối hợp cùng với Trường ĐH Nông Lâm Tp.HCM [do Trung tâm Năng lượng và máy Nông nghiệp (TT.NLMNN) chủ trì] đã tổ chức Hội thảo “The Ultra Hermetic Storage: A seminar- workshop for ensuring Vietnam’s rice quality” (tạm dịch: Bảo quản kín – Đàm bảo chất lượng hạt gạo Việt”. 

Dr. Nguyen Thanh Nghi, CAEM Director at the training course {5th (front line) from the right}

The training course “Technologies of postharvest agro-product storage" was organized by Binh Thuan Center for Agricultural and Fishery Extension in 3 days from August 30 to September 01, 2017. The host of the training course was Dr. Nguyen Thanh Nghi, Director of the NLU Center for Agricultural Energy and Machinery.


In April 2017, the NLU Center for Agricultural Energy and Machinery coordinating with Vietnamese farmer Association - Dak-Nong Branch hosted the training courses for farmers at 8 districts and towns of Dak-Nong province.


In Vietnam, pepper is mainly planted in Gia Lai, Dak Lak, Dak Nong, Binh Phuoc, Dong Nai and Ba Ria–Vung Tau Provinces. Total pepper cultivated area is about 51,000 hectares with production of 160,000 tons in 2016.


At present, fertilizer application is mostly done manually in rice production in Vietnam. Thus, the uniform application of fertilizer is laborious and difficult. 

The Rice Straw  Management Project funded by BMZ (Germany) through the International Rice Research Institute entitled “Scalable straw management options for improved livelihoods, sustainability, and low environmental footprint in rice-based production systems” was deployed concurrently in 3 countries: Cambodia, Philippines, and Vietnam, from the middle of 2016.


 In 2016, the NLU Center for Agricultural Energy and Machiner manufactured and transferred a COCOA roaster to an individual in Ba Ria Vung Tau province. 

 Within the framework of the IRRI - BMZ rice straw management project entitled: Scalable straw management options for sustainability and low environmental footprint in rice-based production systems, the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) coordinating with the Don Bosco vocational school, and the Center for Agricultural Energy and Machinery (CAEM) of the Nong Lam University co-hosted the seminar and demonstration on straw baler in Battambang province of Cambodia, on 30 April, 2016.

Application of improper methods on rice processing affects rice quality and head rice recovery. In Vietnam, paddy with different moisture contents (from 13% to 17%) is dehusked by both rubber roll and stone disk. Thus, objective of this research was to evaluate the technical and economic aspects of the two methods. Optimization was conducted with 20 experiments for input factors (moisture content) and output factors (head brown rice recovery, specific energy consumption).

 Although the windmill has been used for water pumping for many centuries, its development and application is limited due to high investment cost.  Using windmill instead of diesel engine to drive a water pump reduces dependence on fossil fuel and mitigates greenhouse gas emissions.  Thus, this study was conducted to optimize water use from a windpump coupled to a drip irrigation system.  Performance of the windpump-drip irrigation system was also evaluated based on technical and economic feasibility.  Water from the windmill combined with suction pump and piston pump was applied to vegetable crops in a 0.18-ha area through a drip irrigation system.  Results showed that average daily discharge of the windpump was 9.2 m3/day (24 hours) at 1.6 m/s daily wind speed.  It varied from 0.7 at 1.6 m/s to 22.1 m3/day at 2.7 m/s.  Overall efficiency of the windmill-suction pump system varied from 23.1 to 6.1% corresponding to wind speed of 1.7 to 4.3 m/s, respectively.  With total available water supply from the windpump and rainfall of 17.1 m3/day, optimum service area of the system would be 0.81 ha, 0.95 ha, 0.65 ha, and 0.32 ha for tomato, eggplant, onion, and rice crops, respectively. Economic analysis showed that with three tomato crops per year in 0.81 ha, annual net income would be PhP38,960.  Financial rate of return was 19% with a payback period of 9 years.  Thus, the investment for the windpump-drip irrigation system would be feasible only for high-value crops.

 Key words: drip irrigation, high-value crops, optimized water utilization, windpump.

The study was conducted by researchers of the Research Center for Agricultural Energy and Machinery (CAEM) of the Ho Chi Minh City Nong Lam University (NLU) with the objectives of researching on drying ways for cassava and of evaluating the adaptability of the reversible-airflow dryers in drying of cassava.

On the days of 01 and 02, March 2016, Nong Lam University (presided by CAEM) coordinating with National Agricultural Extension Center hosted the demonstration of rice straw balers, and the workshop on "Technologies and equipment for gathering and treatment of rice straw, in the Mekong Delta region of Vietnam", at Cuu Long Rice Research Institute, Thoi Lai district, Can Tho city.

Recently, at early of March 2016, Nong Lam University (do Trung tâm Năng lượng và Máy Nông nghiệp chủ trì thực hiện) phối hợp với Viện Nghiên cứu Lúa quốc tế (IRRI) đã tổ chức buổi hôi thảo chuyên đề với chủ đề Các lựa chọn mở rộng trong việc quản lý rơm rạ để cải thiện sinh kế, phát triển bền vững và ít tác động đến môi trường trong quá trình sản xuất lúa, tại Tp. Cần Thơ. 

Rice straw is a rice by-product, which is currently mostly wasted in Vietnam, in particular in the Mekong delta. At present, the cost of straw gathering is increasing because of the increased use of combine harvesters. High labor cost and lack of labor makes manual collection unfeasible. Farmers therefore often just burn it, which causes pollution, increased greenhouse gas emissions and loss of opportunities to value add. An economic and environmental evaluation and technical field testing of a straw baler with 4 ha/day capacity was therefore conducted in Long An province. During the field testing data on the gathering capacity, fuel consumption, labor requirement and other cost items were collected. The test results showed that the baling cost is US$19.0 per ton of rice straw, the pay-back period of 2.1 years and the internal rate of return of 38%. In addition to the baling cost, the transportation cost varies from US$24 for a distance of 100 km to US$32 for 150 km. The benefits of the machine are not only economical but also include the reduction of field burning. Key words: Rice straw gathering, technical and economic evaluation, environmental benefits.

In order to meet demands of mechanization and automation more and more increasing, the NLU CAEM researched, designed, fabricated, and applied automatic rice husk furnaces into the production to be used for its agro-product dryers such as SRA dryers, recirculating dryers, fluidized-bed dryers, etc.


Diagram of the operational principle of the system.

Từ năm 2013, Dự án CORIGAP (Closing Rice Yield Gaps in Asia) với mục tiêu rút ngắn khoảng cách năng suất lúa gạo ở Châu Á đã được triển khai thực hiện ở 6 nước Châu Á, bao gồm: Trung Quốc, Indonesia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thái Lan, và Việt Nam. Dự án do Viện nghiên cứu lúa Quốc tế (IRRI) điều phối. Một trong những hoạt động của dự án năm 2014, Trung tâm Năng lượng và Máy Nông nghiệp (TTNL), Trường Đại học Nông Lâm Tp. HCM đã thực hiện nội dung về tiếp tục giới thiệu và triển khai ứng dụng kỹ thuật san phẳng đồng ruộng điều khiển bằng tia laser.

 Laser-controlled Land Levelling

 Solar Energy

In November 2013, the NLU Center for Agricultural Energy and Machinery designed, fabricated, and installed sucessfully a SRA dryer for SOYBEAN, with capacity of 20 tons/batch, at the Xa Mat, Tan Lap commune, Tan Bien district, Tay Ninh province, for GREEN LIFE Ltd. Company (in HCM).

In 2013, CAEM installed a 6-ton/batch coffee bean dryer in Da Lat City, Lam Dong province.

 In the last May of 2013, the NLU_CAEM cooperated with Ly tuong Ideal Farm Joint Stock Corporation (HCMC), and Duc Thanh machinery company (Dong Thap province) designed, fabricated, and transferred a 10-ton/h fluidized-bed dryer to Kilombero Plantations LTD., Tanzania (Africa).

The seminars on Energy-saved drying technologies and equipment were held in Xuan Loc district and Long Khanh town of Dong Nai province in 2012. This activity was the collaboration between the Dong Nai Agricultural Extension Center and the NLU Center for Agricultural Energy and Machinery.  


The 2-ton/batch black-pepper SRA dryer was installed at an individual in Xuan Loc district, Dong Nai province, Vietnam.



The wind-power in Binh Thuan province.



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